UNESCO World Heritage Sites in England Part II

Tower of London (1988)

The complex of several buildings was built along the Thames in the Middle Ages. The tower was used as a fortress, armory and dungeon, and some kings lived here for a while. The Tower now houses the British Crown Jewels and was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1988

Cathedral, former St. Augustine’s Abbey and St. Martins Church in Canterbury (1988)

Canterbury was the seat of the spiritual leader of the Church in England , so it is not surprising that there were three particular churches. There is the simple St. Martin’s Church, it was completed in 597 AD. It encloses a Roman building from the 4th century. Augustine was supposed to convert the Saxon kings of Kent to Christianity here. It is the oldest church in England.

The St. Augustin Abbey can still be admired as a ruin. In Canterbury Cathedral, which impressively combines Romanesque and Gothic style elements, with its stained glass windows, Thomas Beckett was murdered in 1170.

These cultural assets were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1988

Queen’s House, Park and Greenwich Naval School (1997)

In addition to the park itself, the world heritage site also includes the buildings located here such as the Queen’s House, the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the Royal Naval College, a former hospital and later naval school – now part of Greenwich University.
The approximately 73 hectare park is a London city park and is located on the south bank of the Thames and originally served as a hunting ground for the English and British rulers.
Greenwich Park is a great place to walk and watch animals. Sports enthusiasts will find tennis courts and cricket fields here and children can have fun in the local children’s playground. Small rental boats can be used to drive around on the lake in the park. It should also be mentioned that the London City Marathon starts here.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the buildings with the Queen’s House in the middle were built. The Queen’s House was built in the Renaissance style and heralded a new era in British construction. Nowadays there is a museum in the Queen`s House.
Another building is the observatory (as Royal Greenwich Observatory) with the time ball – which shows Greenwich Mean Time every day at 13:00.
The Greenwich district is east of central London on the Thames. The district is known for the fact that the prime meridian (zero degree of longitude) passes through here and through Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which is one hour earlier than Central European Time (CET).
Queen’s House, Park and Naval School were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997

Derwent Valley industrial landscape (2001)

The Derwent Valley industrial landscape lies on the Derwent River in central England. The protected area stretches from Madlock Bath to Derby and is approximately 15 miles long. The cotton mills were built there between the 18th and 19th centuries. One of the first industrial cities arose in what was once a rural area. Workers’ housing was built and the industry flourished thanks to child labor who had to work in the factories while parents did their spinning work at home.
The industrial landscape was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2001

Saltaire industrial village (2001)

The village of Saltaire is in West Yorkshire. In 1853 a textile factory was opened there and workers’ apartments, streets, bathhouses and washhouses, educational facilities and a retirement home were built in Victorian style.
Each residential building got its own gas connection.
The quality of living for the workers was exemplary.
The industrial village was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2001

Dorset and East Devon coast (“Jurassic Coast”) (2001)

The Jurassic Coast is a stretch of coast approximately 150 km long. It is located in the southwest of the country on the coast of the English Channel near Exmouth in the county of Devon. Fossils have been found in the beautiful rocky and coastal landscape. Some of the cliff and rock formations are dated to around 200 million years. It is believed that the area was once a desert that was flooded 150 million years ago. When the sea level fell, marshes and lagoons formed, and further flooding caused more rock formations to form on the coast.
The coast and East Devon were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2001

Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (London) (2003)

The Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew are in south-west London. You will find plants there that you will not see anywhere else in Europe. The Victorian greenhouses are located in a large park in which the Chinese pagoda, built in 1762, is located. Later the herb garden (herbarium) and a library were created.

The tropical house – Palm House – was built between 1841 and 1849, where you can see not only plants but also tropical fish. Plants from all over the world grow in the “Temperate House” greenhouse. In 1987, Princess Diana opened the Princess of Wales Conservatory, which has plants from a wide variety of climates, and there are several other greenhouses. Many water birds nest near the man-made lake.

Many different species of bamboo grow in the bamboo gardens and over 700 different species of rhododendron grow in the Rhododendron Dell. A holly avenue invites you to take a walk. In 1910 the wooden “Chokushi-Mon” was built for the Japanese-British exhibition in London, a replica of the Chinese gate from Kyoto. It was later moved to Kew Gardens. It is kept in the style of the late 16th century with numerous carvings of flowers and animals.

The royal family never lived in Queen Charlotte Cottage, they sometimes ate there after outings. The palace in the garden was also only briefly inhabited by the royal family. The botanical gardens were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2003

The historic port of Liverpool (2004)

The city ​​of Liverpoo l is located in the northwest of the country at the confluence of the River Mersey with the Irish Sea – in the county of Merseyside.

For centuries the city was insignificant and only the slave trade operated from there brought the city some prosperity. Many ships left the port for the “New World” and thousands of emigrants boarded the ships here. Goods such as steel and textiles, produced in Manchester and other cities, were exported to Commonwealth countries. In 1829 the first railroad ran from Liverpool to Manchester. It was not until 1880 that Liverpool received city rights.

Liverpool was badly damaged in World War II and rebuilt after the war, so Seaforth Dock was opened in 1972. The Albert Dock houses museums such as the Beatles Story, Tate Liverpool, the Merseyside Maritime Museum and the International Museum of Slavery.

The new BT Convention Center and Echo Arena was planned and implemented and the new Cruise Liner Facility, a shipping company, is establishing a ship connection from Leeds to Liverpool. The Albert Docks are also known as a shopping and entertainment center.

At the Pier Head are the three buildings of the Three Graces, the symbols of Liverpool:
the Royal Liver Building – built in 1911 – with a height of 90 meters,
the Cunard Building – built between 1914 and 1917 – and
the Port of Liverpool Building – built in 1907 – in a neo-baroque style.

The historic port of Liverpool was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2004

Mining landscape of Cornwall and West Devon (2006)

In the 19th century, copper and tin were found in the Cornwall and West Devonian areas and mining began. Deep underground pits were dug in the local landscape, factories for foundries and halls for machines were built. Transport routes such as ports and a rail network were built to transport the metals. In the middle of the 19th century, pits were closed and the facilities deserted.

The mining landscape was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2006

Jodrell Bank Observatory (2019)

The Jodrell Bank Observatory in northwest England, which opened in 1945, is one of the first observatories for radio astronomy and represents the transition from traditional optical astronomy to radio astronomy, which has decisively changed the understanding of space.

When it was completed in 1957, it was the largest radio telescope in the world. The observatory, which is still in operation today, includes several radio telescopes as well as storage halls and control rooms. It now plays an important role in the study of meteorites, the moon and the discovery of quasars.

The Jodrell Bank Observatory was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2019.

Jodrell Bank Observatory