Rwanda. Rwanda's relations with the outside world were
complicated during the year by information that the country
supported an uprising in neighboring Congo (Kinshasa).
Several donors, including the United States, the United
Kingdom, the Netherlands, the European Union (EU) and
Sweden, withheld some of their assistance. They referred,
inter alia, to a UN report in June that pointed to
"overwhelming evidence" that high-ranking Rwandan commanders
and politicians provided the rebel group Movement March 23
(M23) in eastern Congo with weapons and money in violation
of a UN embargo.
countryaah, the human rights group Human Rights Watch also stated
that Rwanda supported M23 and its leader Bosco Ntaganda.
Since 2008, he has been wanted by the International Criminal
Court (ICC) in The Hague. M23 entered Goma and several other
cities in eastern Congo during the year.
Rwanda rejected the information as "baseless". Despite
the criticism, in October Rwanda was elected to the UN
Security Council in 2013, which Foreign Minister Louise
Mushikiwabo saw as something of an establishment.
Aid accounts for about 40% of the country's budget.
Finance Minister John Rwangombwa said that if aid is not
paid out by the beginning of 2013, economic growth could be
hampered. The country's central bank has previously expected
GDP to grow by 7.7% during the year. The head of African
Development Bank Donald Kaberuka, himself Rwandan, also
warned that the frozen aid could hurt growth in the region.
At a ceremony in June, President Paul Kagame declared
that the disputed public courts, gacaca, were wound up. The
grassroots courts were established after the 1994 genocide.
Despite the shortcomings, they had contributed to
reconciliation in the country, he said. The President
pointed out that significantly more verdicts were handed
down in the grassroots courts and at a lower cost than in
the UN Criminal Court (ICTR) in Arusha.
Human rights organizations criticized the gacaca system
for suspects having little opportunity to defend themselves.
During the year, the legal settlements regarding the
genocide continued, both in Rwanda and abroad.
ICTR issued several life sentences. For example, former
Army Captain Idelphonse Nizeyimana was given a life sentence
for genocide and crimes against humanity for his role during
the genocide. he would have given orders to kill the widow
after the last king of the Tutsis. Former Youth Minister
Callixte Nzabonimana was also given a life of encouragement
and participation in the genocide. He was arrested in 2008
The Arusha court also transferred several cases to
In Stockholm, a district court launched a trial in
November against a 54-year-old Rwandan-born man suspected of
genocide. Parts of the trial were held in Rwanda. A similar
case was also tried in Norway, and in Finland the life
sentence for another Rwandan man convicted of genocide was
Opposition politicians were also sentenced in Rwanda.
Opposition leader Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza received eight
years in prison in October for terrorism and the genocide.
The trial began in September 2011. She alleged, among other
things. have transferred money to the Huturebell movement
FDLR in Congo (Kinshasa).
The Supreme Court upheld a four-year sentence that was
handed down in 2011 for Bernard Ntaganda, leader of the
opposition Social Party Imberakuri.
The human rights organization Human Rights Watch
criticized these judgments and saw them as an example of how
the government uses the judiciary to silence criticism.
The Supreme Court, however, reduced the sentence for two
journalists sentenced to long prison terms in 2011. The
publisher of the monthly newspaper Umurabyo, Agnès Uwimana
Nkusi, received four years instead of 17 years in prison
for, among other things. slander, and reporter Saidath
Mukakibibi's seven-year prison sentence was shortened to
three years. The court dismissed charges of denial of