From high-pitched country song to
engaging gospel and a variety of jazz and blues.
North America has many voices and expresses many
different kinds - from the multi-ethnic metropolises of
God's own country to exclusive ski resorts and nature
experiences in Canada. A trip to North America can be a
journey through wilderness, desert landscape and snowy
island scenery. But it might as well be a journey of
discovery through the world's most interesting and vibrant
Area: 24.2 million km²
Number of inhabitants: 360 million
Largest cities (by population)
- New York City - $ 8 million
- Los Angeles - $ 4 million
- Chicago - $ 2.7 million
- Toronto - $ 2.7 million
- Houston - $ 2.1 million
The geography of North America
North America contains many contrasts with multicultural
metropolitan cities, magnificent scenery, deserted
wilderness, a variety of world-class cultural attractions
and attractions. The North American continent is located in
the northern hemisphere, east of the Pacific, west of the
Atlantic Ocean, south of the Arctic Ocean and north of the
South American continent. According to
Countryaah, North America has an area of
24,200,000 km² and population of 368 million and is thus the third largest continent in
the world, only Asia and Africa are larger.
The large Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada is
really huge. In addition to fabulous landscape views, in
Jasper, almost everywhere in the world's second largest
country, there are good opportunities to become acquainted
with fascinating animals: black bears, antelopes, prairie
wolves and many other animals that are wise to consider from
a distance. On a holiday in Canada, you should also not miss
the Banff National Park, which is next door to Jasper, or
the beautiful Icefield Parkway that connects these two. You
should also not miss the mighty peaks of the Rocky
Mountains, beautiful mountain lakes, roaring rivers and the
opportunity to experience bears and bison oxen up close. Of
course, there are big cities in Canada as well. Toronto is
North America's fifth largest city and with more than 80
different ethnic groups, In addition, 170 nationalities and
more than 100 different languages are the capital of the
Ontario province, one of the most multicultural cities in
the world. In addition to the multicultural, you can
experience the impressive Canadian National Tower, which
with its 553.3 meters was the tallest building in the world,
until the Dubai Tower in the United Arab Emirates stood
clear in 2008.
Neighboring United States is also known for the
million-dollar skyscrapers, and the sight of the Empire
State Building and the Chrysler Building rising from
hundreds of soaring glass and steel office buildings is
still an impressive sight. New York, however, is much more
than glittering architecture - it is also first-rate art at
some of the world's best museums and galleries, it is also
heavy underground culture, a paradise for shopping lovers
and a nightlife that does not come to rest until long after
the New York Times has distributed. The United States will
also be experienced for the rich and very "European" New
England and the big city of Boston. For the Rocky Mountains
and the Wild West with the states of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming
and Colorado. For the states of Kansas, Nebraska and South
Dakota, with Mount Rushmore with the famous monument of the
four presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham
Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt. Travel to the United States
for the old gangster city and the exciting Chicago
architectural laboratory that holds the United States
tallest skyscraper. For the Pacific coast with whales,
dolphins and sea lions. For the music in New Orleans,
Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee. Or for California's
thrilling deserts, national parks and glamorous Hollywood
Central America is the smallest of the three parts that
make up the great continent called America
(the second largest in the world). Central America is made
up of two parts. One of them, known as continental Central
America, is a narrow strip of land that connects
North America to South America.
The other part of Central America consists of the islands of
the Caribbean Sea, called the Antilles, in
addition to the archipelago of the Bahamas
and the islands of Turks and Caicos.
Continental Central America is made up of seven
countries: Belize, Guatemala,
El Salvador, Honduras,
Nicaragua, Costa Rica and
The Antilles region is made up of the Greater Antilles
and the Lesser Antilles. These countries are located in the
Greater Antilles: Cuba, Jamaica,
Haiti and the Dominican Republic,
in addition to Puerto Rico, which is a
territory controlled by the United States.
South of Cuba are the small Cayman Islands, controlled by
the United Kingdom. The Lesser Antilles are smaller islands
that make up several countries: Antigua and Barbuda,
Granada, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
and Trinidad and Tobago. In the Lesser
Antilles there are also several foreign possessions:
Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Santo Eustáquio and
the southern part of the island of São Martinho, which
belong to the Netherlands; Guadeloupe and Martinique, which
belong to France; Anguilla, British Virgin Islands and
Montserrat, which belong to the United Kingdom; and the US
Virgin Islands, which belong to the United States. Other
small colonial territories, formed by smaller islands, are
subordinate to these administrative units.
Outside the Caribbean, already in the Atlantic Ocean, are
the Bahamas, an independent country, and
Turks and Caicos, islands that belong to
the United Kingdom.
Soil and climate
No point in mainland Central America is more than 200
kilometers away from the sea. The Pacific Ocean
is to the southwest, and the Caribbean Sea to the northeast.
The relief of the continental part is largely
mountainous. The highest point in the region is the
Tajumulco volcano in Guatemala, near the
border with Mexico. It is 4,220 meters high.
There are plains in the north of the mainland, along the
coast and near Lake Nicaragua. This lake is the largest in
Central America is among the tropics,
that is, in the warm regions near the equator.
The lowlands usually have a warm climate. Higher altitude
regions are cooler. It rains more in summer than in winter.
The Caribbean region is more humid than the Pacific coast.
Flora and fauna
Tropical forests grow on the plains of
eastern Central America. In the forests of the highest
parts, it is also possible to find pines and oaks. Tropical
rainforests grow at altitudes of about 1,800 meters. These
forests, which are almost always dripping with moisture,
have evergreen oaks, laurels and orchids.
Shrubs and small trees grow in even higher places.
The jaguar, ocelot, sucuarana,
coyote and gray fox are
some of the wild animals found in continental Central
America. Several species of monkeys live in
the forests. Birds such as parrots,
toucans and quetzals are also
found in the region.
In the Antilles, the vegetation is generally shrubby and
the fauna does not have large animals. However, there is a
wide variety of native birds.
About three-fifths of the population is made up of
mestizos of Indians (natives) and Europeans. Approximately
one fifth is entirely native. Smaller groups are descended
mainly from Europeans, Africans or Asians.
Most Central American countries have Spanish as their
official language. English is spoken in Belize, Jamaica, the
Bahamas and the other islands that were or are British and
American colonies. In Haiti and the French territories,
French is spoken. On some islands in the Lesser Antilles,
Dutch (Dutch) or Papiamento is spoken, which is a mixture of
Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch. Many people also speak Mayan
and other languages of indigenous origin, mainly in
Catholicism is the main religion in Central America. Some
groups mix Catholicism with native and African religions.
Education is of better quality in Panama and Costa Rica
than in Guatemala and other countries in the northern part
of continental Central America. Health services also tend to
be of poorer quality in the north.
Central American countries grow various agricultural
products to sell to other countries. Coffee, bananas and
sugar cane are the most important crops. Many small farmers
plant corn, beans and squash to supply local markets.
Central American industries produce food, beverages and
tobacco. They also manufacture clothes, shoes, medicines,
chemicals, cement, paper and wood products. Tourism and
other services are also important for Central American
Human beings have inhabited Central America for thousands
of years. Between 400 and 1000 BC, groups of Amerindians
began to settle in some places and cultivate the land. Some
of them, called Maya, ended up giving rise
to a great civilization. Mayan culture peaked between AD 250
European explorers arrived in Central America in the 16th
century. Spanish conquerors soon controlled the region. The
Amerindian population, weakened by the new diseases brought
by Europeans, declined rapidly.
The Spaniards ruled almost the entire continental part of
Central America, administering it in the form of provinces
in the Kingdom of Guatemala. This colony also included parts
of southern Mexico today, but not Panama. The Spaniards
first ruled Panama from Peru and then Colombia (until 1903).
Several of the Antilles were also Spanish colonies and later
changed hands a few times, with the arrival of Swedes,
Danes, Dutch, French and English.
The British took Belize in the 18th century, and the
territory was named British Honduras. This was the only
continental colony of the British in Central America.
Antigua and Barbuda and Jamaica were some of the other
British colonies in the region.
The French also colonized some islands, such as
Guadeloupe and Martinique, which are still French territory,
and Haiti, now independent. The Dutch colonized a territory
made up of several islands, which was called the Netherlands
Antilles and which still constitutes Dutch territory.
Haiti was the first country in Central America to become
independent in 1804.
Continental Central America became independent from the
Spanish in 1821. For a short time, Guatemala, Honduras, El
Salvador, Costa Rica and Nicaragua joined Mexico. In 1823,
independence was declared again, and they formed the United
Provinces of Central America. Guatemala City was its
capital. But, around 1840, each country became independent
from the others. (Belize only gained independence from the
United Kingdom in 1981.)
In 1902, the Dominican Republic and Cuba were also
independent countries. Most other islands achieved
independence in the second half of the 20th century.
The new countries faced political problems from the 19th
to the 20th century. The countries of the continental part
did not reach an agreement on their borders. Civil wars
broke out across the region. Many dictators
ruled harshly (Costa Rica was an exception for most of the
20th century, as a democratic country without an army). The
United States has sent troops to the region several times.
At the end of the 20th century, democratic governments began
to emerge in the rest of Central America.