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Yearbook 2012

Colombia. According to countryaah, the conflict in Colombia took new hopeful turns during the year. In late February, FARC (Colombia's Revolutionary Armed Forces), the largest of the country's guerrilla groups, first announced the release of all soldiers and policemen held captive over the past ten years. At the same time, FARC announced that they would immediately cease kidnapping, which was one of the most feared activities of guerrillas. President Juan Manuel Santos officially became cold-hearted about the announcement, citing the hundreds that are still without a trace and probably already killed.

Admittedly, the FARC broke its promise to stop kidnapping just two months later by the abduction of French journalist Roméo Langlois. But on August 27, President Santos was able to announce that the government, after preparatory talks kept secret since February in Cuba, intended to initiate peace talks with FARC and also invited the other large guerrilla group ELN (National Liberation Army) to the talks. Peace negotiations began in early October in Oslo, as Norway was diplomatically active on the issue. In early December, President Santos also announced that he gave the negotiations a year to succeed. The fact that presidential elections, in which Santos hopes to be re-elected, will be held in 2014 many skeptics argued that it was political points that were Santo's main motive for the peace initiative and that the FARC would therefore lose the will to contribute to peace. The fact that no ceasefire was announced during the negotiations was also seen as a bad sign.

Some successes were noted in the fight against crime. In mid-September, for example, Daniel "El Loco" Barrera, the leader of one of the largest cocaine cartels in Colombia, and in April, one of the leaders of one of the illegal paramilitary groups in the country, Javier Antonio Calle Serna, surrendered to the police and was shortly extradited to the United States.

In mid-November, former Defense Minister Gabriel Silva revealed that spy plan had flown in to neighboring Venezuela during former President Álvaro Uribe's time in power 2002-10. The pretext was that Colombian guerrillas used Venezuelan territory for their bases, something that Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez has always denied.

2012 Colombia

Right-wing terror

The Colombian Permanent Human Rights Committee condemned the disappearances of 80 prisoners over the previous year, the torture of political prisoners and the documented 300 secret executions. At the same time, the number of disappearances of members on the left rose to 325.

On November 6, 1985, 35 partisans from the M-19 Supreme Court occupied Bogota. The military intervened and conducted a complete massacre. All partisans as well as 53 other people - judges and civilians - were killed. Guerrilla commander Alonso stated that the dead "had been intentionally executed by the army".

By this time, 2,000 members of the legal left had been killed during right-wing terror. In 1987, the prominent UP member, Jaime Pardo Leal, was killed in an assassination attempt. In August 89, the senator and candidate for the presidency in 90, Luis Carlos Galán, was killed. He had promised to disband the paramilitary groups and fight the drug mafia. In March 1990, Bernardo Jaramillo was killed. He was the presidential candidate for the UP. 20 days later, Jaramillo's successor, Carlos Pizarro, was killed.

Official investigations confirmed the existence of 140 paramilitary groups in the country - most funded by the drug cartels. During the same period, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was accused of spraying coca plantations with poison. Over the previous 10 years, the drug addict had gained tremendous power in the country. The "underground economy", based on the trade in coca, refining and exports, took place on secret channels, was tacitly tolerated by the authorities and made huge profits.

At the presidential election on May 27, 1990, Liberal César Gaviria was elected by 48% of the vote, in an election where 58% abstained. MSN got 23.7%, ADM-19 (M-19 guerrilla political successor) got 12.6% and PSC 11.9%.

In December of that year, elections for a constitutional assembly were held. By this election, the number of couch voters reached 65%. The ADM-19 gained 19 seats - only 4 less than the ruling Liberal Party.


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