Rhesus immunization in pregnancy

Facts

  • Rhesus negative pregnant women may be immunized if they are exposed to rhesus positive antigens in connection with pregnancy or abortion
  • Stated by Songaah.com, all pregnant women be offered screening for type and rhesus antibodies early at the first medical examination. Rhesus negative mothers are given specific fetus rhesus type in 25. weeks pregnant at the GP
  • There can be seen approximately 100 cases of immunized pregnant women a year in Denmark, of which 10 are severe and necessitate a blood transfusion to the fetus in the womb
  • Immunisation can cause anemia with a rhesus positive fetus, which can be a serious condition

Rhesus immunization in pregnancy

What is rhesus immunization?
Rhesus is a group specific antigens (albumen), which are stuck on the surface of the red blood cells. An antigen that is stuck on the surface of a cell, may lead to the formation of other proteins (antibodies), which binds to the Antigen. When an antibody binds to an antigen, it will trigger an immunological reaction.

The persons who are rhesus antigens on the surface of the red blood cells, called rhesus positive, while those who do not have them, called rhesus negative. It is congenital, whether one is rhesus positive or negative.

A rhesus negative woman who carries on a rhesus positive fetus, can form antibodies against fetal antigens. Rhesus antibodies may cross the placenta freely and bind to the antigens on fetal red blood cells. The immunological reaction leads to fetal red blood cells are destroyed and the fetus can get anemia.

A rhesus negative woman can only form the rhesus antibodies, if the woman in its previous pregnancies have been exposed to rhesus positive fetus blood. It can be during a miscarriage or birth of a rhesus positive baby, or if bleeding occurs from the fetus in the mother’s blood during pregnancy over. This entire process, which ends with the formation of RH antibodies, called rhesus immunization. There are several rhesus antigens on the surface of our red blood cells. The antigen most frequently formed antibodies against rhesus D is.

Without preventive treatment with rhesus prophylaxis (anti-d) is the risk of rhesus D immunization with a rhesus negative woman after the birth of a rhesus positive baby between 2% to 16% and after spontaneous and induced abortion respectively 3.5% and 5.5%. By an amniocentesis or a pregnancy outside the uterus, where the mother is rhesus negative and the fetus is rhesus positive, likelihood of rhesus immunization under 1%. The risk is at least, if the mother does not have the same ABO blood type as the fetus, that is to say, if the mother has blood type B for example, and the child has blood type a. after the introduction of treatment with rhesus prevention to all rhesus negative women who either miscarry or give birth to rhesus positive children, occurs only in very few cases with serious rhesus immunization in Denmark.

Gallery

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Source: www.slideshare.net

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Source: www.slideshare.net

RhoGAM

RhoGAM

Source: www.rhogam.com

RH Disease and Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization (Patient …

RH Disease and Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization (Patient ...

Source: www.obfocus.com

Placenta praevia: A brief overview

Placenta praevia: A brief overview

Source: www.slideshare.net

Anti D prophylaxis- Dr. Shashikala

Anti D prophylaxis- Dr. Shashikala

Source: www.slideshare.net

RH-ISOIMMUNIZATION AND & ABO incompatibility

RH-ISOIMMUNIZATION AND & ABO incompatibility

Source: slideplayer.com

Placenta praevia: A brief overview

Placenta praevia: A brief overview

Source: www.slideshare.net

Placenta praevia: A brief overview

Placenta praevia: A brief overview

Source: www.slideshare.net

Reproductive Health: Nepal

Reproductive Health: Nepal

Source: www.slideshare.net

PPT – Rh Isoimmunization PowerPoint Presentation

PPT - Rh Isoimmunization PowerPoint Presentation

Source: www.slideserve.com

RH-ISOIMMUNIZATION AND & ABO incompatibility

RH-ISOIMMUNIZATION AND & ABO incompatibility

Source: slideplayer.com

Hemolytic Disease of the newborn ( RH Isoimmunization )

Hemolytic Disease of the newborn ( RH Isoimmunization )

Source: www.slideshare.net

The essential keys to a successful pregnancy

The essential keys to a successful pregnancy

Source: www.slideshare.net

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Source: www.slideshare.net

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Rh Rhesus Isoimmunization

Source: www.slideshare.net

Rh isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization

Source: www.slideshare.net

Rh Incompatibility

Rh Incompatibility

Source: medicalfoxx.com

The essential keys to a successful pregnancy

The essential keys to a successful pregnancy

Source: www.slideshare.net

Evaluation of Stillbirth

Evaluation of Stillbirth

Source: slideplayer.com