If you get fever and disease feeling which will be followed by a rash, which would like to start on the chest and back and spreads to the face, scalp, arms and legs, it might be chickenpox. The rash starts as a small red spot, which after some hours turns into a small bladder with clear content. After a couple of days formed a crust, which gradually falls off. The rash itches frequently. In the oral mucosa can also see rash. The number of spots on the skin varies from a few to many hundreds. Individual patches can be at different stages of development in different parts of the body.
According to STP (stop teenage pregnancy), chicken pox is very contagious. At 30 years old and is 98% immune against chickenpox after having had it as a child. In adults, especially pregnant women, can chickenpox be a serious disease that may necessitate that the pregnant needs to be hospitalized for intensive treatment at the hospital. The infection can also cause severe birth defects in the first half of pregnancy for about 2% of the cases.
If the pregnant have not had chickenpox, can a blood test show whether or not the woman is susceptible to the infection. The blood test is important because about 80% of those who believe that they have not had the chickenpox, yet have been infected and therefore are protected against the disease.
Chickenpox is one of the diseases with the highest level of the contagion of childhood. In most cases the evolution is benign, affecting in particular children from 3 months to 10 years old.
Varicella also known as chickenpox, is an infection highly contagious. It is caused a virus, the Varicella-Zoster. The clinical manifestations of the most obvious and common of this virus are fever and skin rashes.
Chickenpox is the most contagious disease of childhood. Usually benign, affects children mainly from 3 months to 10 years old.
WHAT IS CHICKENPOX?
The chickenpox, or varicella, is a virus is highly contagious. The responsible is the Varicella-zoster, which belongs to the family of herpes viruses, which can also cause herpes and mononucleosis.
The transmission of the virus is through droplets that are expelled by the mouth or nose. The level of the contagion of chicken-pox is so high among people who live in the same house, the likelihood of catching the disease is about 90%. In addition to the respiratory route, the disease can also be transmitted via contact with contaminated objects. The liquid coming from the blisters of the chickenpox is highly contagious.
The incubation period of the virus is 10 to 20 days. The individual carrier becomes contagious from about 48 to 72 hours before the start of the first symptoms.
After a first infection, the individual develops immunity to all of life. That is, if you have already had chickenpox, there is very little likelihood of returning to have.
During childhood this infection is very common. In healthy children, varicella usually has a low rate of complications and mortality. Already in adults, or individuals immunosuppressed, can bring about more severe complications.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CHICKENPOX?
The first symptoms of chickenpox:
- Fever (<38ºC);
- Sore throat;
- Decrease of appetite.
Approximately 24 hours after the onset of these symptoms, are the skin lesions typical of chickenpox. The lesions are initially small papules reddish that turn into fluid-filled blisters. With the passing of time, the bubbles will drying and leaving scabs that eventually fall to the order of 1 to 2 weeks.
The rash itself of the infection causes a lot of itching, so it is normal for the child to want to scratch. However, it is essential to avoid busting the blisters to prevent contamination of the lesions by micro-organisms and natural skin.
The danger of contagion remains until all the blisters have dried and formed crusts.
WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS?
Are rare complications of chickenpox in healthy children. However, they are there:
- Encephalitis (brain infection);
- Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart);
- Syndrome, reye ‘ s.
HOW IS CHICKENPOX?
This infection has no specific treatment, so that this passes through the control and relief of symptoms. The itching caused by the lesions can be relieved by resorting to the use of lotions to the base of calamine, or the realization of warm water baths.
The pain and fever are usually alleviated and controlled with the use of analgesics and anti-piréticos. The use of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is not recommended for the treatment of chickenpox because it can lead to the occurrence of the syndrome of reye ‘ s.
In the case of being necessary, can be used nonsteroidal anti-histamines to control the itching.
In more serious cases it may be necessary to resort to antiviral drugs. Furthermore, it is recommended that the patient remain in the home.
AS IF YOU PREVENT CHICKENPOX?
Since this is a virus with a high level of contagion, the first step is to isolate the child infected with chickenpox until all skin lesions dry up completely.
There is a vaccine, outside of the National Vaccination Plan, which is available for purchase in pharmacies. Although this does not guarantee 100% protection against the disease, causes, in the case of the occurrence of the same, the infection is much more lightweight.
The vaccine can be administered from 12 months of life, being required only one dose. If the vaccination is after 13 years of age, are required 2 doses should be administered with an interval of 6 to 10 weeks between each one.
Is contraindicated in individuals immunosuppressed, children with age less than 1 year, pregnant women and individuals undergoing treatment with salicylates. After vaccination, you should wait at least 6 weeks before the administration of salicylates.
As well as the greater part of the vaccine, this can lead to some side effects at the administration site such as redness, swelling or low grade fever.
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